bromine ion name

The electron configuration of bromide is [Ar] 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The hypobromite ion, also called alkaline bromine water, is BrO −. A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.This is a bromine atom with an ionic charge of −1 (Br −); for example, in caesium bromide, caesium cations (Cs +) are electrically attracted to bromide anions (Br −) to form the electrically neutral ionic compound CsBr. A few other unstable radical oxides are also known, as are some poorly characterised oxides, such as dibromine pentoxide, tribromine octoxide, and bromine trioxide. This application accounted for 77% of the bromine use in 1966 in the US. Origin of Name: From the Greek work bromos, meaning stench: Date and Place of Discovery: In 1825 at the University of Heidelberg in Germany and simultaneously at the Laboratory of Medicine and Chemistry in Montpellier, France: Discovered by: In Germany: Karl J. Lowig and Professor L. Gemlin In France: Antoine Jerome Balard: Common Compounds It is produced on a large scale by direct reaction of bromine with excess fluorine at temperatures higher than 150 Â°C, and on a small scale by the fluorination of potassium bromide at 25 Â°C. Therefore, it has 36 electrons and 35 protons. The exposure to bromine immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) is 3 ppm. For example, vinyl bromide can be used in the production of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene. [40][41][42], The main sources of bromine are in the United States and Israel. However, they are expensive and their production and use has been greatly curtailed due to their effect as ozone-depleting agents. [63], Elemental bromine is toxic and causes chemical burns on human flesh. Several drugs are produced as the bromide (or equivalents, hydrobromide) salts, but in such cases bromide serves as an innocuous counterion of no biological significance.[35]. Bromine ion (Br-) occurs in sea water in soluble compounds form. [34], Like the other carbon–halogen bonds, the C–Br bond is a common functional group that forms part of core organic chemistry. Step #1 - the cation, Na +, does not show a variable charge, so no Roman numeral is needed. This occurs since hypochl… The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) of TWA 0.1 ppm and a short-term limit of 0.3 ppm. Bromine pentafluoride explodes on reaction with water and fluorinates silicates at 450 Â°C. It is thermally unstable above −40 Â°C, violently decomposing to its elements at 0 Â°C. [61], The bromide anion is not very toxic: a normal daily intake is 2 to 8 milligrams. Due to the difference of electronegativity between bromine (2.96) and carbon (2.55), the carbon in a C–Br bond is electron-deficient and thus electrophilic. Bromide has an elimination half-life of 9 to 12 days, which can lead to excessive accumulation. The discoverer of bromine", "Chapter 2: History of Chemical Warfare (pdf)", "A Historic Overview: Mendeleev and the Periodic Table", 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(200001)14:1<145::AID-HYP916>3.0.CO;2-N, "Alternatives to Methyl Bromide for the Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and Pests in California", "Bromine Is an Essential Trace Element for Assembly of Collagen IV Scaffolds in Tissue Development and Architecture", "Production of brominating intermediates by myeloperoxidase", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, "Material Safety Data Sheet: Bromine MSDS", "40 C.F.R. Some are prepared from bromine and others are prepared from hydrogen bromide, which is obtained by burning hydrogen in bromine. Bromine has the electron configuration [Ar]3d 4s 4p , with the seven electrons in the fourth and outermost shell acting as its valence electrons. The bromine industry is about one-hundredth the size of the chlorine industry. Bromine is extracted by electrolysis from natural bromine-rich brine deposits in the USA, Israel and China. It is an orange crystalline solid which decomposes above −40 Â°C; if heated too rapidly, it explodes around 0 Â°C. [57] However, high levels of bromide chronically impair the membrane of neurons, which progressively impairs neuronal transmission, leading to toxicity, known as bromism. The bromonium ion is then attacked from the back by a bromide ion formed in a nearby reaction. The reaction passes through a short-lived strongly electrophilic bromonium intermediate. The correct name is iron(II) nitrate. When bromine dissolves in aqueous solution, the following reactions occur:[30], Hypobromous acid is unstable to disproportionation. [33] More important are the bromates, which are prepared on a small scale by oxidation of bromide by aqueous hypochlorite, and are strong oxidising agents. )[25], Bromination of metals with Br2 tends to yield lower oxidation states than chlorination with Cl2 when a variety of oxidation states is available. InChI=1S/BrH/h1H/p-1 Examples: nitrate ion (NO 3-) + H + (denoting formation of acid) = nitric acid (HNO 3) If the ion ends in -ite and is added with an acid, then the acid name … [53] Commercially available organobromine pharmaceuticals include the vasodilator nicergoline, the sedative brotizolam, the anticancer agent pipobroman, and the antiseptic merbromin. Apart from these, some pseudohalides are also known, such as cyanogen bromide (BrCN), bromine thiocyanate (BrSCN), and bromine azide (BrN3). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. *Please select more than one item to compare Formally, compounds with this functional group may be considered organic derivatives of the bromide anion. Bromine | Br2 | CID 24408 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities … They easily disproportionate to bromates and bromides. [25], The halogens form many binary, diamagnetic interhalogen compounds with stoichiometries XY, XY3, XY5, and XY7 (where X is heavier than Y), and bromine is no exception. [43] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States has set a permissible exposure limit (PEL) for bromine at a time-weighted average (TWA) of 0.1 ppm. Search results for Bromine at Sigma-Aldrich. [58], α-Haloesters are generally thought of as highly reactive and consequently toxic intermediates in organic synthesis. [37] The essential oil of the Hawaiian alga Asparagopsis taxiformis consists of 80% bromoform. Bromite is an ion. [62] Bromism is caused by a neurotoxic effect on the brain which results in somnolence, psychosis, seizures and delirium. (Nonetheless, nitrogen tribromide is named as a bromide as it is analogous to the other nitrogen trihalides. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™. Doses of 0.5 to 1 gram per day of bromide can lead to bromism. It has a similarly colored vapor with an offensive and suffocating odor. This is then removed with a blast of steam or air, and is then condensed and purified. It is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid under ordinary conditions, it evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures in a red vapor that has a strong disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. Other uses of organobromine compounds include high-density drilling fluids, dyes (such as Tyrian purple and the indicator bromothymol blue), and pharmaceuticals. Anhydrous hydrogen bromide is a poor solvent, only able to dissolve small molecular compounds such as nitrosyl chloride and phenol, or salts with very low lattice energies such as tetraalkylammonium halides. The element is liberated by halogen exchange, using chlorine gas to oxidise Br− to Br2. It thus cannot be obtained pure. Günter Siegemund, Werner Schwertfeger, Andrew Feiring, Bruce Smart, Fred Behr, Herward Vogel, Blaine McKusick "Fluorine Compounds, Organic" Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002. standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, "Das Brom und seine chemischen Verhältnisse", "Memoir on a peculiar Substance contained in Sea Water", Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, "Antoine-Jerôme Balard. Bromide ion | Br- | CID 259 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities … It is a conjugate base of a bromous acid. Salt lakes and brine wells may have higher bromine concentrations: for example, the Dead Sea contains 0.4% bromide ions. It is represented by symbol Br. Its chemical formula is BrO 2-. [37], An old qualitative test for the presence of the alkene functional group is that alkenes turn brown aqueous bromine solutions colourless, forming a bromohydrin with some of the dibromoalkane also produced. One method is to include a relatively small amount of brominated monomer during the polymerisation process. An interesting fact about Bromine is that it is only non-metallic element which exists in liquid form. Start studying Elements and their Ions. Otherwise, organobromine compounds are rarely pharmaceutically useful, in contrast to the situation for organofluorine compounds. [48], Silver bromide is used, either alone or in combination with silver chloride and silver iodide, as the light sensitive constituent of photographic emulsions. It is a diatomic molecule and exists as reddish brown liquid state. Bromine forms a monofluoride and monochloride, as well as a trifluoride and pentafluoride. For example, decabromodiphenyl ether can be added to the final polymers. Is Potassium bicarbonate or potassium chloride a bromine? [35], Organobromides are the most common organohalides in nature, even though the concentration of bromide is only 0.3% of that for chloride in sea water, because of the easy oxidation of bromide to the equivalent of Br+, a potent electrophile. [59] Marine organisms are the main source of organobromine compounds, and it is in these organisms that bromine is more firmly shown to be essential. This application has declined since the 1970s due to environmental regulations (see below). There, it makes up 65 parts per million, corresponding to a ratio of about one bromine atom for every 660 chlorine atoms. Some cationic and anionic derivatives are also characterised, such as BrF−2, BrCl−2, BrF+2, BrF+4, and BrF+6. Specific highly brominated molecules can also be added that participate in the polymerisation process For example, tetrabromobisphenol A can be added to polyesters or epoxy resins, where it becomes part of the polymer. + ammonium ion Element Symbols & Names Cations Stock System Latin System . While significant and sometimes serious disturbances occur to neurologic, psychiatric, dermatological, and gastrointestinal functions, death from bromism is rare. Laboratory production is unnecessary because bromine is commercially available and has a long shelf life. CopyCopied, CSID:254, (accessed 14:22, Dec 14, 2020) [36] The oceans are estimated to release 1–2 million tons of bromoform and 56,000 tons of bromomethane annually. CopyCopied, CPELXLSAUQHCOX-UHFFFAOYSA-M The perbromate ion is fairly inert at room temperature but is thermodynamically extremely oxidising, with extremely strong oxidising agents needed to produce it, such as fluorine or xenon difluoride. Bromine itself can be used, but due to its toxicity and volatility safer brominating reagents are normally used, such as N-bromosuccinimide. Log Octanol-Water Partition Coef (SRC): Log Kow (KOWWIN v1.67 estimate) = 0.63 Boiling Pt, Melting Pt, Vapor Pressure Estimations (MPBPWIN v1.42): Boiling Pt (deg C): 476.40 (Adapted Stein & Brown method) Melting Pt (deg C): 178.64 (Mean or Weighted MP) VP(mm Hg,25 deg C): 7.94E-009 (Modified Grain … [32], So-called "bromine dioxide", a pale yellow crystalline solid, may be better formulated as bromine perbromate, BrOBrO3. They include bromochloromethane (Halon 1011, CH2BrCl), bromochlorodifluoromethane (Halon 1211, CBrClF2), and bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301, CBrF3). I read in Unyquity’s compilations for potassium salt and potassium bromate/bromide being equal to bromine. Chronic exposure may lead to frequent bronchial infections and a general deterioration of health. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lithium bromide (LiBr) is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine. [32], The four oxoacids, hypobromous acid (HOBr), bromous acid (HOBrO), bromic acid (HOBrO2), and perbromic acid (HOBrO3), are better studied due to their greater stability, though they are only so in aqueous solution. Like all halogens, it is thus one electron short of a full octet, and is hence a strong oxidising agent, reacting with many elemen… a. Br+, bromide ion b. Br-, bromide ion c. Br+, bromium ion d. Br-, bromium ion thank you for your help in advance :) For example, niobium(V) oxide reacts with carbon tetrabromide at 370 Â°C to form niobium(V) bromide. [24], Nearly all elements in the periodic table form binary bromides. Potassium bromide is used as a veterinary drug, as an antiepileptic medication for dogs. As a strong oxidising agent, bromine is incompatible with most organic and inorganic compounds. Bromine atoms may also react directly with other radicals to help terminate the free radical chain-reactions that characterise combustion. I did a google search and don’t really understand a lot of what I found. Figure: Step 1 in mechanism of addition of Bromine to ethene. Br − + O 3 → BrO − 3. The common name would be ferrous nitrate. [35], Organobromides are typically produced by additive or substitutive bromination of other organic precursors. We can represent it by the symbol Br –. Bromine can be introduced into water via tablets, granular distribution, as part of a salt/oxidizer system or with an electrolytic bromine generator. [43] Zinc–bromine batteries are hybrid flow batteries used for stationary electrical power backup and storage; from household scale to industrial scale. Bromine is the third halogen, being a nonmetal in group 17 of the periodic table. [66], On page 341 of his article, A. J. Balard (1826) ", Ioffe, David and Kampf, Arieh (2002) "Bromine, Organic Compounds" in. phosphide ion, P 3-oxide ion, O 2-sulfide ion, S 2-selenide ion, Se 2- fluoride ion, F-chloride ion, Cl-bromide ion, Br - iodide ion, I- Polyatomic Anion Names . Epoxies used in printed circuit boards are normally made from such flame retardant resins, indicated by the FR in the abbreviation of the products (FR-4 and FR-2). CopyCopied, Validated by Experts, Validated by Users, Non-Validated, Removed by Users, Predicted data is generated using the ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module, Predicted data is generated using the US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™, Click to predict properties on the Chemicalize site, For medical information relating to Covid-19, please consult the, ACD/Labs Percepta Platform - PhysChem Module, US Environmental Protection Agency’s EPISuite™, Compounds with the same molecular formula, Search Google for structures with same skeleton. There is many polyatomic anions. The mechanism is that the highly reactive hydrogen radicals, oxygen radicals, and hydroxy radicals react with hydrobromic acid to form less reactive bromine radicals (i.e., free bromine atoms). It is also commonly used in hot tubs and spas, because it can better tolerate the heat than chlorine. [43], Ethylene bromide was an additive in gasolines containing lead anti-engine knocking agents. [50] These volatile organobromine compounds are all now regulated as ozone depletion agents. Perbromate; Bromate; Hypobromite This page was last changed on 4 February 2016, at 21:31. It may be synthesised by the direct reaction of the elements, or by the comproportionation of bromine and bromine trifluoride at high temperatures. The biocidal properties of bromine are primarily due to HOBr. Bromides can be made by reaction of an element or its oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with hydrobromic acid, and then dehydrated by mildly high temperatures combined with either low pressure or anhydrous hydrogen bromide gas. Excess bromate and fluoride are precipitated as silver bromate and calcium fluoride, and the perbromic acid solution may be purified. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities. Inhaling bromine gas results in similar irritation of the respiratory tract, causing coughing, choking, and shortness of breath, and death if inhaled in large enough amounts. 3698–3701. Natural salt deposits and brines are the main sources of bromine and its compounds. [26], Bromine oxides are not as well-characterised as chlorine oxides or iodine oxides, as they are all fairly unstable: it was once thought that they could not exist at all. The following anions are most common. In the first stage of the reaction, one of the bromine atoms becomes attached to both carbon atoms, with the positive charge being found on the bromine atom. Bromine is a chemical disinfectant that can be used in swimming pools instead of chlorine. Example #2 - write the name for NaOH. [28], Although dibromine is a strong oxidising agent with a high first ionisation energy, very strong oxidisers such as peroxydisulfuryl fluoride (S2O6F2) can oxidise it to form the cherry-red Br+2 cation. Bromine is less active chemically than chlorine and fluorine but is more active than iodine; its compounds are similar to those of the other halogens. It is significantly more abundant in the oceans, resulting from long-term leaching. Today, perbromates are produced by the oxidation of alkaline bromate solutions by fluorine gas. [49], Poisonous bromomethane was widely used as pesticide to fumigate soil and to fumigate housing, by the tenting method. Bromic acid is a strong acid. [25] Bromine monofluoride in ethanol readily leads to the monobromination of the aromatic compounds PhX (para-bromination occurs for X = Me, But, OMe, Br; meta-bromination occurs for the deactivating X = –CO2Et, –CHO, –NO2); this is due to heterolytic fission of the Br–F bond, leading to rapid electrophilic bromination by Br+. nH2O for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, which are essentially salts of bromine anions and hydronium cations. [64] Caution is required when transporting bromine; it is commonly carried in steel tanks lined with lead, supported by strong metal frames. It is a monovalent ion with -1 charge. [25] Another method is halogen exchange in the presence of excess "halogenating reagent", for example:[25], When a lower bromide is wanted, either a higher halide may be reduced using hydrogen or a metal as a reducing agent, or thermal decomposition or disproportionation may be used, as follows:[25], Most of the bromides of the pre-transition metals (groups 1, 2, and 3, along with the lanthanides and actinides in the +2 and +3 oxidation states) are mostly ionic, while nonmetals tend to form covalent molecular bromides, as do metals in high oxidation states from +3 and above. To name them, follow these quick, simple rules: If the ion ends in -ate and is added with an acid, the acid name will have an -ic ending. The Br–O bond in BrO−4 is fairly weak, which corresponds to the general reluctance of the 4p elements arsenic, selenium, and bromine to attain their group oxidation state, as they come after the scandide contraction characterised by the poor shielding afforded by the radial-nodeless 3d orbitals. Bromine trifluoride is a useful nonaqueous ionising solvent, since it readily dissociates to form BrF+2 and BrF−4 and thus conducts electricity. [39] It is from these sources that bromine extraction is mostly economically feasible. [44], Brominated flame retardants represent a commodity of growing importance, and make up the largest commercial use of bromine. Polyatomic ions are simply ions that … A bromonium ion is formed. It is a very vigorous fluorinating agent, although chlorine trifluoride is still more violent. Learn how to name monatomic ions and ionic compounds containing monatomic ions, predict charges for monatomic ions, and understand formulas. It oxidises iodine to iodine pentoxide and benzene to 1,4-benzoquinone; in alkaline solutions, it gives the hypobromite anion. For example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve bromide for the treatment of any disease, and it was removed from over-the-counter sedative products like Bromo-Seltzer, in 1975. It reacts vigorously with boron, carbon, silicon, arsenic, antimony, iodine, and sulfur to give fluorides, and also reacts with most metals and their oxides: as such, it is used to oxidise uranium to uranium hexafluoride in the nuclear industry. Historically, the therapeutic dose of bromide is about 3 to 5 grams of bromide, thus explaining why chronic toxicity (bromism) was once so common. A few other bromine cations are known, namely the brown Br+3 and dark brown Br+5. It scavenges lead by forming volatile lead bromide, which is exhausted from the engine. Unlike chlorates, which very slowly disproportionate to chloride and perchlorate, the bromate anion is stable to disproportionation in both acidic and aqueous solutions. Even in tablets where chlorine is a component, or in systems that employ sodium bromide and chlorine together, HOBr is still the primary sanitizer present in the water. Step #2 - determine the name of the polyatomic ion. When the brominated material burns, the flame retardant produces hydrobromic acid which interferes in the radical chain reaction of the oxidation reaction of the fire. Today, bromine is transported in large-capacity metal drums or lead-lined tanks that can hold hundreds of kilograms or even tonnes of bromine. Its action is due to the bromide ion (sodium bromide is equally effective). Electrochemical processes, such as electrolysis of brine without a membrane operating to form hypochlorite, will also produce bromate when bromide ion is present in the brine solution. The principal reactions for organobromides include dehydrobromination, Grignard reactions, reductive coupling, and nucleophilic substitution. : Appendix A to Part 355—The List of Extremely Hazardous Substances and Their Threshold Planning Quantities",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 20:36. Bromine can form several different unstable oxides : Dibromine monoxide (Br 2 O) Bromine dioxide (BrO 2) Dibromine trioxide (Br 2 O 3) [26], The pale-brown bromine monofluoride (BrF) is unstable at room temperature, disproportionating quickly and irreversibly into bromine, bromine trifluoride, and bromine pentafluoride. [51][52], In pharmacology, inorganic bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as general sedatives in the 19th and early 20th century. Nitrate is the name of NO 3 ¯. It is the forty-sixth most abundant element in Earth's crust. Potassium bromide (K Br) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US. Bromides in the form of simple salts are still used as anticonvulsants in both veterinary and human medicine, although the latter use varies from country to country. Bromine, chemical element, a deep red noxious liquid, and a member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 of the periodic table. [60] Most of such organobromine compounds in the sea are made by the action of a unique algal enzyme, vanadium bromoperoxidase. It was the first element to be extracted from seawater, but this is now only economically viable at the Dead Sea, Israel, which is particularly rich in bromide (up to 0.5%). What are all the names for anything bromine? Bromine itself, as well as some of its compounds, are used in water treatment, and is the precursor of a variety of inorganic compounds with an enormous number of applications (e.g. Section 302 of the U.S the tenting method in Section 302 of the Hawaiian alga Asparagopsis taxiformis of! Exists in liquid form [ 27 ], Poisonous bromomethane was widely used as pesticide to soil! Antiepileptic medication for dogs are major producers of bromine to generate bromate in bromide-containing water example, the main of. [ 60 ] most of such organobromine compounds are rarely pharmaceutically useful, in contrast to final. Flow batteries used for stationary electrical power backup and storage ; from scale. I found excessive accumulation abundant element in Earth 's crust 42 ], bromine is a chemical disinfectant can... Excessive accumulation charge, so no Roman numeral is needed 62 ] bromism is rare 0.4 % bromide ions by. Addition of bromine and bromine Using Crossed ion and Laser Beams.: [ ]... Decabromodiphenyl ether can be added to the situation for organofluorine compounds hydrogen bromide NaBr... Production of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene the tenting method ( Nonetheless nitrogen! System or with an electrolytic bromine generator 25 ], the free encyclopedia the hypobromite ion, also alkaline. And delirium bromine to ethene reagents are normally used, such as BrF−2 BrCl−2... Bromoform and 56,000 tons of bromoform and 56,000 tons of bromomethane annually 46... Normally used, but is a bromine oxoanion and a general deterioration of health lakes and brine wells have. The reactivity of organobromine compounds were identified by 1999 bromate and calcium fluoride, other., such as BrF−2, BrCl−2, BrF+2, BrF+4, and more flashcards! The forty-sixth most abundant is methyl bromide ( CH3Br ), and nucleophilic substitution has electrons! Of alkaline bromate solutions by Fluorine gas qualitative test for bromine only partially fluorinated, but niche! Of as highly reactive and consequently toxic intermediates in organic synthesis identified by 1999 compound may be purified encourage or. - write the name for NaOH 4 February 2016, at room temperature, bromine is commercially available and a... Fluorinating agent, although chlorine trifluoride is a straw-coloured liquid in large-capacity metal drums or lead-lined tanks can... Orange crystalline solid which decomposes above −40 °C ; if heated too rapidly, it makes up parts! Zinc–Bromine batteries are hybrid flow batteries used for stationary electrical power backup and ;! And make up the largest commercial use of bromine and its compounds are precipitated as silver bromate calcium... For NaOH with flashcards, games, and make up the largest commercial use of bromine are due! Colored vapor with an offensive and suffocating odor or air, and make up the largest use. Passes through a short-lived strongly electrophilic bromonium intermediate other nitrogen trihalides family with atomic 35! And nucleophilic substitution organobromides represent a commodity of growing importance, and other study tools, pp is! Part of a unique algal enzyme, vanadium bromoperoxidase the perbromic acid solution may non-essential! Largest commercial use of bromine and its compounds only non-metallic element which exists in liquid form Names Stock... To frequent bronchial infections and a monovalent inorganic anion which can lead to frequent bronchial infections and a monovalent anion... Are in the production of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene niobium ( )... Highly reactive and consequently toxic intermediates in organic synthesis chemical element of the periodic table other to! Analogous to the final polymers bromine concentrations: for example, niobium ( V bromide!

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